Structural Evolution of Political and Electoral System in Pakistan
A Study of First Thirty Years (1947-1977)
Political system of Pakistan, from the very beginning, dangles between authoritarianism, whether military or civilian, and an urge for the legitimacy of democratic norms. As an addition to the bitterness of this fact, Pakistan, since its inception up to date, lacks representative government. The concept and functioning of election is closely related to the party system and its evolution in the democratic process. In Pakistan, the party system has gone through a long historical and evolutionary process. In this article an effort has been made to discuss and explain the political parties evolved and what changes have been experienced in their structures in the first thirty years (1947-1977).
2. G.W.Choudhry. (1957). Constitutional Development in Pakistan. Longman.
3. Hamid, S. (1988). Autobiography of a General. Lahore: Ferozsons.
4. Herbert Feldman. (1955). A Constitution for Pakistan. Michigan: Oxford University Press.
5. Iftikhar Ahmad. (1975). Pakistan’s General Election 1970. Lahore: Ferozsons.
6. Khalid B. Sayeed. (1967). The political system of Pakistan. Houghton Mifflin.
7. Khurshid, M. (1997). Pakistan Mein Intikhabi Amal aur Assemblion ki Shakist-o- Rekht. Tarikh-O-Thaqafat Pakistan, Shashmahi Mujallah.
8. Lawrence Ziring. (1997). Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A political History. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
9. Malik, H. (2001). Pakistan : founder’s aspirations and today's realities. Oxford University Press.
10. Muhammad Waseem. (1989). The State and Politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: NIHCR.
11. Mushtaq Ahmad. (1985). Pakistan at the Cross Roads. Karachi: Royal Book Company.
12. Niazi, K. (1987). Aur Line cut Gai, in Urdu. Lahore: Jang Publishers.
13. Norman D. Palmer. (1975). Elections and Political Development: the South Asian Experience. London: C Hurst and Company.
14. Palmer, N. D. (1975). Contemporary Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Publishers.
15. Rafi Raza. (1997, June 16). Bhutto and Pakistan. The Daily Dawn. Karachi.
16. Rashid, H. al. (1987). The Foreshadowing of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Asiatic Society.
17. Raza, R. (1997). Pakistan in perspective, 1947-1997. Oxford University Press.
18. Report on General Election Pakistan 1970-71. (n.d.). Karachi.
19. Shahid Javed Burki, & Baxter, C. (1991). Pakistan Leadership Challenges. Westview Press.
20. Symonds, R. (1987). The making of Pakistan. Islamic Book Service.
21. White paper on Baluchistan. (1974). Rawalpindi.