An Assessment of the Role of Nigeria in ECOWAS’ Security Architecture and Democratisation Efforts in West Africa: From Unilateralism to Multilateralism, 1999-2018
This paper investigates the multilateral approach of Nigeria towards the promotion of democracy and security following its return to civil rule since 1999. The Nigerian-led ECOMOG interventions in West the African region before the return to civilian governance in 1999 rarely received the legitimacy of the international community. Before 1999, Nigeria appeared to lack the credibility and credentials to champion democratization struggles in the region. Nigeria’s military intervention in the Liberian civil war (1990-1997) and the restoration of democracy in Sierra Leone in 1998 lacked international legitimacy and appeared not to be linked to the nurturing and advancement of democracy in West Africa, but rather for the parochial interests of the two Generals; Ibrahim Babangida and Sani Abacha. However, following the return of Nigerian to democracy in 1999, Nigeria’s military interventions in West African sub-region have been more multilateral than unilateral and appear to be linked to advancing stability and the democratization process within the regional frameworks of ECOWAS, backed by the AU and the UN.
2. Adejumobi Said (2016) ‘’Region-Building in West Africa.’’ In: Levine, Daniel H. and Nagar, Dawn (eds.). Region-Building in Africa: Political and Economic Challenge. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 213-230.
3. Adekeye Adebajo (2008) “The Security Council and the Three Wars in West Africa.” In: Lowe, Vaughan; Roberts, Adam; Welsh, Jennifer and Zaum, Dominik (eds.). The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945. Oxford: Oxford Press, p. (‘n.p.’).
4. Alex Thurston (2017) “Was ECOWAS’ Intervention in the Gambia a Sign of Things to Come in
5. Christof Hartmann (2017) “ECOWAS and the Restoration of Democracy in the Gambia,” Africa Spectrum (52)1: 85-99.
6. D.C. Bach (2007) ‘’Nigeria's ‘Manifest destiny’ in West Africa: Dominance without Power,’’ Afrika Spectrum 42(2): 301-321.
7. David Leatherwood (2001) The Hazards of Strange Bedfellows: The United States, Nigeria, and Peacekeeping in West Africa. Washington, D.C.: National War College. At: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a445153.pdf [accessed 27/03/2018].
8. ECOWAS forces start withdrawing from Guinea Bissau. At: http://www.africanews.com/2017/06/06/ecowas-forces-start-withdrawing-from-guinea-bissau// [accessed 29/03/2018].
9. G J. Yoroms (2004) “ECOMOG and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy.” In: Akinterinwa, Bola A. (ed.). Nigeria’s New Foreign Policy Thrust: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji, CON. Ibadan: Vantage Publishers, pp. 301-322.
10. G.M. Khadiagala (2018) Regional Cooperation on Democratization and Conflict Management in Africa, Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. At: https://carnegieendowment.org/files/CP_327_Khadiagala_Africa_Interior_Final.pdf [accessed 11/10/2018]
11. O, Cyril (2006) “Terrorism in West Africa: Real, Emerging or Imagined Threats?” African Security Review 15(3): p. 87-101.
12. J.A. Falode (2016) “The Nature of Nigeria’s Boko Haram War, 2010-2015: A Strategic Analysis,” Terrorism Research Initiative 10(1). At: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/488/html [accessed
13. J.F. Forest, & J, Giroux (2011) “Terrorism and Political Violence in Africa: Contemporary
14. Trends in a Shifting Terrain.” Journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies 5(3-4). At: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/152/html [accessed 20/07/2016].
15. J.M. Kabia (2009) Humanitarian Intervention and Conflict Resolution in West Africa: From ECOMOG to ECOMIL. Surrey, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, pp. 138-139.
16. John Campbell (2017) “Possible End to the Gambia Crisis.” Council on Foreign Relations. 19 January. At: https://www.cfr.org/blog/possible-end-gambia-crisis [accessed 02/04/2018].
17. Malte Brosig (2015) Cooperative Peacekeeping in Africa: Exploring Regime Complexity. New York: Routledge.
18. Naila Salihu (2015) “The Center Can Hold: Towards a Regional Approach to Combating West Africa’s Terrorists,” Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Policy Brief 1/July. At: http://www.kaiptc.org/Publications/Policy-Briefs/Policy-
19. Nivedita Ray (2016) ‘’Growing Threat of Terrorism in Africa: The Case of Boko Haram.’’ Indian Council of World Affairs, 20 February. At: http://www.icwa.in/pdfs/IB/2014/GrowingThreatofTerrorisminAfricaIB20022016.pdf [accessed 21/07/2016].
20. Olalekan Adetayo (2016) “We need our troops back home, Buhari tells Guinea-Bissau.” Punch. 16 December. At: http://punchng.com/we-need-our-troops-back-home-buhari-tells-guinea-bissau-2/ [accessed 29/03/2018].
21. Olawale Ismail (2013) “The Regional and International Implications of Radicalization and Violent Extremism in West Africa.” In: Gow, James; Olonisakin, Funmi and Dijxhoorn, Ernst (eds.). Militancy and Violence in West Africa: Religion, Politics and Radicalization. New York: Routledge, pp. 235-254.
22. P.K. Mendy, & R. Lobban (2013) A Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. (4th edn.). Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
23. Paul Williams (2017) “A New African Model of Coercion? Assessing the ECOWAS Mission in the Gambia.” 16 March. International Peace Institute. At: https://theglobalobservatory.org/2017/03/ecowas-gambia-barrow-jammeh-african-union/ [accessed 02/04/2018].
24. Report: Nigeria 2010. London: Oxford Business Group.
25. The Scoop Explains: Buhari is pulling out Nigerian troops from Guinea Bissau. At: http://www.thescoopng.com/2017/12/16/buhari-guinea-bissau/ [accessed 29/03/2018].
26. The White House (2014) “Fact Sheet: Partnering to Counter Terrorism in Africa.” The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. August 6. At: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/08/06/fact-sheet-partnering-counter-terrorism-africa [accessed 21/07/16].
27. Ulriksen Stale (2010) “Webs of War: Managing Regional Conflict Formations in West Africa and Central Africa.” In: Harpviken, Kristian B. (ed.). Troubled Regions and the Failing States: The Clustering and Contagion of Armed Conflict. Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
28. UN Rep asks Buhari to intervene in Guinea Bissau. At: http://www.thescoopng.com/2016/08/16/guinea-bissau/ [29/03/2018].
29. Wasiru Alli (2012) The Role of Nigeria in Regional Security Policy. Abuja: Single Vision Limited.
30. West Africa?” World Politics Review. 27 January. At: https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/21018/was-ecowas-intervention-in-gambia-a-sign-of-things-to-come-in-west-africa [accessed 02/042018].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.